- WebCafé home
- Newly Diagnosed
- Treatment Options
- Non-Invasive blc
- Invasive bladder cancer
- Upper tract TCC
- Metastatic cancer
- Clinical trials
- Survival Guides
- Resources USA & Canada
- Resources Europe
- Clinical trials
- Alternative medicine
- Financial help
- About Us
|Women and Bladder Cancer|
Consider the following information:
It is estimated that 12,400 Americans will die of bladder cancer in 2001. Females are approximately twice as likely as males to die from the disease. A greater percentage of females are diagnosed at more advanced stages than men, which may contribute to the higher case mortality rate in women.In addition to relative delays in diagnoses among women, other factors contributing to the higher death rate may include the higher portion of nontransitional cell cancer histologies (rare cell types) that occur in women, i.e.: adenocarcinoma, small cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma; the relative thinness of the elderly adult female bladder (perhaps permitting more rapid extravesical spread); possible differences in the relative proportion of higher grade transitional cell carcinomas between men and women; and the older median age at presentation in women than men.2
Experts from the Departments of Urology and Pathology, University of Miami, recently published an article which has caught the attention of women with bladder cancer:
"We reviewed our radical cystectomy series to determine whether the majority of patients present with muscle invasive bladder cancer. The records of 184 radical cystectomies performed by 1 surgeon from 1992 to 1999 were reviewed, and all slides of presenting pathology were reviewed by 1 pathologist.... Women were more likely to be diagnosed with muscle invasion primarily than men (85.2% and 50.7%, respectively)...We support the suggestion that therapeutic gains might follow from improved education regarding the signs and symptoms associated with bladder cancer, with enhanced focus on women and consideration of screening methods for those at high risk for bladder cancer."3
Women smokers may face higher bladder cancer risk.
A similar study conducted in Europe concluded that the risk of bladder cancer increased with the duration of smoking, ranging from approximately a two-fold increased risk for a duration of less than 10 years to over a four-fold increased risk for a duration of greater than 40 years. An immediate decrease in risk of bladder cancer was observed for those who gave up smoking. This decrease was over 30% in the immediate 1-4 years after cessation.5
When women and men smoke at comparably high levels, women’s bladder cancer risk is 30 to 50 percent higher. Society for Women’s Health Research
Alarming rise' in female bladder cancer seen in UK
Use of Hair Dye increases risk of bladder cancer
Water nitrates increase risk of bladder cancer in women.
The National Cancer Institute has come to the following conclusion in it's report: Bladder Cancer Screening: "There is insufficient evidence to determine whether a decrease in mortality from bladder cancer occurs with hematuria testing, urinary cytology testing, or a variety of other tests on exfoliated urinary cells or other urinary substances."2
In other words, it isn't considered cost effective (will it save lives in the long run) to check for cancer when blood in the urine is first detected.
Blood in the urine may have many different causes, but the possibility of bladder cancer should not be ignored, no matter the age or sex of someone presenting with symptoms. All people who have visible blood in the urine should be considered to have bladder cancer until proven otherwise. Because hematuria can come and go, a negative result on urinalysis cannot exclude the diagnosis of bladder cancer.8
After factoring in age and smoking, data has shown that the likelihood of developing bladder cancer may go up as a woman's age at menopause goes down. The odds of bladder cancer were 32 percent higher for women who reached menopause between 43 and 47 years, compared with women who reached menopause at age 48 or later. The risk was 60 percent higher for women who were menopausal at 42 or younger. These associations were the same whether menopause occurred naturally or as a result of surgery. The chances of developing bladder cancer were not linked to any other reproductive factor, including age when periods began, age at first birth, number of births, hormone replacement therapy use, infertility, fibroids, ovarian cysts or endometriosis.
In addition, women with a history of bilateral oophorectomy had an increased risk of bladder cancer compared with those who did not undergo bilateral oophorectomy
It has been suggested that the drop in estrogen after menopause "could lead to an increased number of urinary tract infections associated with bladder cancer," researcher Dr. A.E. Prizment reported. "This may explain why we observed associations between bladder cancer and only those reproductive factors which were related to menopause."
However, Prizment added: "It is too early to make any definite conclusions since the biological mechanism of this association is unclear."9
1. PRIORITIES OF THE KIDNEY/BLADDER CANCERS PROGRESS REVIEW GROUP National Cancer Institute http://prg.nci.nih.gov/kidney/finalreport.html
|Last Updated ( Sunday, 16 November 2008 )|