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|Abbreviations, Medical Terms and Glossary|
See also: Diagnostic procedures
TCC =transitional cell carcinoma--most common form of bladder cancer
adjuvant - A drug or agent added to another drug or agent to enhance its medical effectiveness.
bilateral - Term describing a condition that affects both sides of the body or two paired organs.
bladder instillation - Also known as a bladder wash or bath. The bladder is filled with a solution that is held for varying periods of time before being drained through a catheter.
blood urea nitrogen - Also known as BUN. A waste product in the blood that comes from the breakdown of food protein. The kidneys filter blood to remove urea. As kidney function decreases, the BUN level increases.
carcinoma in situ - Also known as CIS. The stage of high-grade cancer that appears as a flat, reddish, velvety patch on the bladder lining.
CIC - Also known as clean intermittent catheterization. Periodic insertion of a clean catheter into the urethra after washing your hands to drain the urine from the bladder.
condom catheter - A device or cone-shaped condom catheter that is placed over the penis to allow for urine drainage in men who have urinary incontinence. These devices are attached to the shaft of the penis by some form of adhesive and are connected to urine collecting bags by a tube.
cystectomy - Surgical removal of the bladder.
cystitis - Also known as bladder infection. Urinary tract infection (UTI)involving the bladder, which causes inflammation of the bladder and results in pain and a burning feeling in the pelvis or urethra.
detrusor muscle - Contracting muscle in the bladder that helps to expel urine.
epithelium - The outside layer of cells lining
extravasation -Process of passing urine.
foley catheter - A flexible plastic tube with a small balloon on one end. Inserted through the urethra up into the bladder to provide continuous urinary drainage.
hypercontinence - a condition where complete excretion of urine is difficult, sometimes necessitating CIC (clean intermittent catheterization, see above)
ileal conduit - Made by using a small segment of the small intestine and creating an artificial opening on the surface of the skin for urine to pass outside the body into a collecting pouch attached to the skin.
inferior vena cava - A large vein that receives blood from the lower extremities, pelvis and abdomen and empties it into the right atrium of the heart.
intravesical -Inside the bladder.
lamina propria - In the bladder, a layer of loose connective tissue between the urothelium and bladder muscle (separated by a membrane from the urothelium).
lymph nodes - Small rounded masses of tissue distributed along the lymphatic system most prominently in the armpit, neck and groin areas. Lymph nodes produce special cells that help fight off foreign agents invading the body. Lymph nodes also act as traps for infectious agents.
nephrectomy - Surgical removal of a kidney.
orthotopic - 'In the normal or usual position'. An orthotopic neobladder is a reconstruction surgery that allows normal urination through the urethra after bladder removal and replacement, also called a neobladder
ostomy- A surgical procedure such as a colostomy or ileostomy, in which an artificial opening called a stoma is created for excreting waste into an external bag (appliance). See also, ileal conduit
palpated -Examined medically by touching.
penile clamp - A device used by men to put direct pressure on the penis to compress the urethra preventing urine leakage. When the device is removed (unclamped) the bladder is allowed to drain.
penile prostheses -Semirigid or inflatable devices that are implanted into penises to alleviate impotence.
perineal: Related to the area between the anus and the scrotum in males and the area between the anus and the vagina in females, called the perineum
peritoneum - Strong, smooth, colorless membrane that lines the walls of the abdomen and covers numerous body organs including the bladder.
perivesical - 'Around the bladder', usually referring to the fat that surrounds the bladder. If a tumor penetrates the perivesical fat that would mean it has escaped the bladder
prostate -In men, a walnut-shaped gland that surrounds the urethra at the neck of the bladder. The prostate supplies fluid that goes into semen.
renal (kidney) pelvis - The basin into which the urine formed by the kidneys is excreted before it travels to the ureters and bladder.
renal cell carcinoma -RCC, a type of kidney cancer, more common that TCC or transitional cell carcinoma, which usually arises in the bladder and rarely into the ureter and/or kidney (renal pelvis)
renal vein -Short, thick vein which returns blood from the kidneys to the vena cava.
resection -The surgical removal of a portion of a body part.
retroperitoneal lymph nodes - Lymph nodes at the back of the abdominal and pelvis cavity.
self-catheterization - Inserting a thin, flexible tube into the bladder through the urethra to allow drainage of urine. This is sometimes necessary after bladder removal and replacement in case of hypercontinence
sepsis -Presence in blood or other body tissues of harmful bacteria spreading from a focal point of infection
stent - a tube inserted through the urethra and bladder and into the ureter. Stents are used to aid treatment in various ways, such as helping drugs to enter the ureters or to help open ureters that may be blocked due to scarring or tumor
transitional cell carcinoma - A type of cancer that develops in the lining of the bladder, ureter and renal pelvis.
transurethral resection -Surgery performed with a special instrument inserted through the urethra.
trigone- The most sensitive area on the inside (wall) of the bladder, where bladder nerves are most highly concentrated.
uremia -The illness associated with the buildup of urea in the blood because the kidneys are not working effectively. Symptoms include nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, weakness and mental confusion.
urethra - female: a tube of appr. 3 cm located above the vagine that drains the urine from the bladder
ureteroscopy - Also known as URS. A ureteroscope is inserted through the urethra and bladder to inspect the ureters. Often used for retrieval of kidney stones.
ureterotomy -Incision and stenting of a narrow ureter.
urinary diversion - A term used when the bladder is removed or the normal structures are being bypassed and an opening is made in the urinary system to divert urine. The flow of urine is diverted through an opening in the abdominal wall.
urostomy - An opening through the skin to the urinary tract to allow urine to drain when normal voiding is not possible.
|Last Updated ( Friday, 14 March 2008 )|