See also: Diagnostic procedures
Some of the commonly used abbreviations that you will encounter reading this site, message board and in our discussion group are:
TCC =transitional cell carcinoma–most common form of bladder cancer
TUR= transurethral resection–minimally invasive surgery performed via the urethra, also known as
TURBT-transurethral resection bladder tumor
IVP= intraveinous pyelogram–test for checking the kidneys and ureters
CYSTO =cystoscopy, inspection of the bladder with a lighted instrument.
RESECTION =(surgically) cutting out.
CIS =carcinoma in situ (flat tumor)
BCG=-Bacillus Calmette-Guerin -immunotherapy for superficial blaCa
TURB, TURP = TransUrethral Resection of the Bladder or Prostate
RC = radical cystecomy (surgical removal of the bladder and prostate in men, bladder and reproductive organs in women)
POKE & PEEK or P&P= term used on the bladder cancer list
referring to periodic cystoscopy exams.
Slash and Burn – TUR plus fulurgation
POUCH PEOPLE= term used on the list referring to those who have had their bladder removed. (sometimes called "marsupials", like the pouched animals, e.g. kangaroos).
"CYSTO KIDS" = term used on the list referring to those who still have
their bladders and thus have to have periodic cystoscopic exams.
p53= a biomarker which may be tested to check for indications of possible tumor aggressiveness
CCDRT= cell culture drug resistance testing (chemo sensitivity assay)
IFN= Interferon, an immunotherapy
MVAC= common chemo cocktail for bladder cancer
CMV = chemo cocktail
CISCA= chemo cocktail
5FU= flourouracil (a chemo)
GC= Gemzar (gemcitabine) and Cisplatin (platinol), a chemo combination
KLH =keyhole limpet hemocyanin–immunotherapy for superficial TCC
PDT= photodynamic therapy–experimental tx for superficial TCC
TNM/Staging system T=tumor size, N=nodes involved, M=metastasis
MRI= magnetic resonance imaging, diagnositic test
CT= computerized tomography, diagnostic test
PET= positron emission tomography, diagnostic test
SCC =small cell carcinoma; squamous cell carcinoma–both rare forms of bladder cancer
RCC= renal cell carcinoma–kidney (also called renal pelvis) cancer
qd = every day
bid = twice a day ("bi" = two)
tid = three times a day ("tri"= three)
qid = four times a day ("quad" = four)
qod = every other day
q 8 hrs = every 8 hours
p.o. = by mouth
I.M. = intramuscular
I.V. = intravenous
a.c. = before meals ("ante cibum")
p.c. = after meals ("post cibum")
H.S. = bedtime, hour of sleep
rbc = red blood cells
wbc = white blood cells
anemia = usually refers to RBC deficiency
leukocytopenia = WBC deficiency, often a side effect of chemo, exposes the patient to infection susceptiility.
thrombocytopenia = platelet deficiency
sx = surgery (or symptoms)
dx = diagnosis
tx = treatment
hx = history
px = physical
gy = Grey –a radiation unit
rad = a radiation unit
rad tx = radiation therapy
PT = physical therapy
OT = occupational therapy
Email and message board slang:
LOL -laugh out loud
ROTFL -roll on the floor laughing
IMHO -in my humble opinion
-BTW by the way
FYI for your information!
d/o, s/o, w/o, h/o = daughter of, son of, wife of, husband of DIL, SIL,
MIL, FIL = daughter-in-law, son-in-law, mother-in-law, father-in-law
Thanks to Kathy Knight for the help
Glossary of terms relating to bladder cancer
adjuvant – A drug or agent added to another drug or agent to enhance its medical effectiveness.
atrophy –When an organ diminishes in size.
bilateral – Term describing a condition that affects both sides of the body or two paired organs.
bladder instillation – Also known as a bladder wash or bath. The bladder is filled with a solution that is held for varying periods of time before being drained through a catheter.
bladder irrigation- A continuous flow of fluid through the bladder with the use of a catheter.
bladder neck – Area of thickened muscle fiber where the bladder joins the urethra. Acting on signals from the brain, bladder neck muscles can either tighten to hold urine in the bladder or relax to allow urine out and into the urethra.
bladder neck contracture – Scarring of tissue at the bladder neck as a complication of surgery. May lead to urinary problems that require further surgery to correct.
bladder prolapse – When the bladder slips out of its correct position.
blood urea nitrogen – Also known as BUN. A waste product in the blood that comes from the breakdown of food protein. The kidneys filter blood to remove urea. As kidney function decreases, the BUN level increases.
carcinoma in situ – Also known as CIS. The stage of high-grade cancer that appears as a flat, reddish, velvety patch on the bladder lining.
CIC – Also known as clean intermittent catheterization. Periodic insertion of a clean catheter into the urethra after washing your hands to drain the urine from the bladder.
condom catheter – A device or cone-shaped condom catheter that is placed over the penis to allow for urine drainage in men who have urinary incontinence. These devices are attached to the shaft of the penis by some form of adhesive and are connected to urine collecting bags by a tube.
cystectomy – Surgical removal of the bladder.
cystitis – Also known as bladder infection. Urinary tract infection (UTI)involving the bladder, which causes inflammation of the bladder and results in pain and a burning feeling in the pelvis or urethra.
cystogram -An X-ray examination of the bladder utilizing contrast material injected into the bladder.
cytology – The examination of cells obtained from the body tissue or fluids (ie: urine), especially to establish if they are cancerous.
distal urethra: Location of urethral opening between the middle or the penile shaft and the head of the penis (glans) in men; in women, the part of the urethral opening further from the bladder, closer to the opening in the vagina
distal ureter- Location of the ureter closest to the bladder opening. Ureters are the long, thin tubes that connect the kidney (renal pelvis) to the bladder; proximal ureter-Location of the ureter closest to where it connects to the kidney (renal pelvis)
detrusor muscle – Contracting muscle in the bladder that helps to expel urine.
dysuria –Painful or difficult urination, most frequently caused by infection or inflammation but it can also be caused by certain drugs.
ectopic ureter –A ureter which fails to connect properly to the bladder and drains somewhere outside the bladder.
epididymis – A coiled tube attached to the back and upper side of the testicle that stores sperm and is connected to the vas deferens
epididymitis – An inflammation of the epididymis.
epithelium – The outside layer of cells lining
extravasation -Process of passing urine.
foley catheter – A flexible plastic tube with a small balloon on one end. Inserted through the urethra up into the bladder to provide continuous urinary drainage.
fulguration – The destruction of tissue by means of high-voltage electric sparks.
hydronephrosis – Swelling of the top of the ureter, usually because something is blocking the urine from flowing into or out of the bladder; a condition that occurs as a result of urine accumulation in the upper urinary tract.
hypercontinence – a condition where complete excretion of urine is difficult, sometimes necessitating CIC (clean intermittent catheterization, see above)
ileal conduit – Made by using a small segment of the small intestine and creating an artificial opening on the surface of the skin for urine to pass outside the body into a collecting pouch attached to the skin.
inferior vena cava – A large vein that receives blood from the lower extremities, pelvis and abdomen and empties it into the right atrium of the heart.
inguinal -Located in or affecting the groin.
intravesical -Inside the bladder.
intravesical chemotherapy – Chemotherapy administered within the bladder.
intravesical immunotherapy – Treatment of disease by administering antibodies inside the bladder.
kegel exercises – Tightening and relaxing the muscles that hold urine in the bladder and hold the bladder in its proper position, performed in order to improve the ability to hold in urine and to help people regain continence after bladder removal and/or replacement surgery (radical cystectomy).
lamina propria – In the bladder, a layer of loose connective tissue between the urothelium and bladder muscle (separated by a membrane from the urothelium).
lymph nodes – Small rounded masses of tissue distributed along the lymphatic system most prominently in the armpit, neck and groin areas. Lymph nodes produce special cells that help fight off foreign agents invading the body. Lymph nodes also act as traps for infectious agents.
lymphadenopathy – Any disease, disorder or enlargement of the lymph nodes.
nephrectomy – Surgical removal of a kidney.
orthotopic – 'In the normal or usual position'. An orthotopic neobladder is a reconstruction surgery that allows normal urination through the urethra after bladder removal and replacement, also called a neobladder
ostomy– A surgical procedure such as a colostomy or ileostomy, in which an artificial opening called a stoma is created for excreting waste into an external bag (appliance). See also, ileal conduit
palpated -Examined medically by touching.
papillary tumor -Tumor with nipple-like, stalk-like or finger-like appearance. Can be low grade or high grade, indicating aggressiveness. Most common type of bladder tumor, usually low grade.
penile clamp – A device used by men to put direct pressure on the penis to compress the urethra preventing urine leakage. When the device is removed (unclamped) the bladder is allowed to drain.
penile prostheses -Semirigid or inflatable devices that are implanted into penises to alleviate impotence.
perineal: Related to the area between the anus and the scrotum in males and the area between the anus and the vagina in females, called the perineum
peritoneum – Strong, smooth, colorless membrane that lines the walls of the abdomen and covers numerous body organs including the bladder.
perivesical – 'Around the bladder', usually referring to the fat that surrounds the bladder. If a tumor penetrates the perivesical fat that would mean it has escaped the bladder
prostate -In men, a walnut-shaped gland that surrounds the urethra at the neck of the bladder. The prostate supplies fluid that goes into semen.
prostatectomy -Surgical procedure for the partial or complete removal of the prostate.
pyeloplasty –Surgical reconstruction of the renal pelvis to correct a blockage.
renal (kidney) pelvis – The basin into which the urine formed by the kidneys is excreted before it travels to the ureters and bladder.
The ureters and renal pelvis are vulnerable to spread from TCC (transitional cell carcinoma or bladder cancer). Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a different kind of cancer that begins in the kidney itself and is not treated the same as TCC that has spread into the upper urinary tract.
renal cell carcinoma -RCC, a type of kidney cancer, more common that TCC or transitional cell carcinoma, which usually arises in the bladder and rarely into the ureter and/or kidney (renal pelvis)
renal vein -Short, thick vein which returns blood from the kidneys to the vena cava.
resection -The surgical removal of a portion of a body part.
resectoscope – A tube-shaped instrument used by the urologist to scoop a tumor from the bladder lining.
retroperitoneal lymph nodes – Lymph nodes at the back of the abdominal and pelvis cavity.
self-catheterization – Inserting a thin, flexible tube into the bladder through the urethra to allow drainage of urine. This is sometimes necessary after bladder removal and replacement in case of hypercontinence
sepsis -Presence in blood or other body tissues of harmful bacteria spreading from a focal point of infection
stent – a tube inserted through the urethra and bladder and into the ureter. Stents are used to aid treatment in various ways, such as helping drugs to enter the ureters or to help open ureters that may be blocked due to scarring or tumor
stoma – An opening on the abdomen which drains urine into an external bag after the creation of an ileal conduit
transitional cell carcinoma – A type of cancer that develops in the lining of the bladder, ureter and renal pelvis.
transurethral resection -Surgery performed with a special instrument inserted through the urethra.
trigone– The most sensitive area on the inside (wall) of the bladder, where bladder nerves are most highly concentrated.
unilateral -Affecting only one side.
uremia -The illness associated with the buildup of urea in the blood because the kidneys are not working effectively. Symptoms include nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, weakness and mental confusion.
ureter -One of two tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder.
urethra – female: a tube of appr. 3 cm located above the vagine that drains the urine from the bladder
urethra- male – the tube extending from the tip of the bladder through the penis, that drains urine from the bladder
ureteroscopy – Also known as URS. A ureteroscope is inserted through the urethra and bladder to inspect the ureters. Often used for retrieval of kidney stones.
ureterotomy -Incision and stenting of a narrow ureter.
urinary diversion – A term used when the bladder is removed or the normal structures are being bypassed and an opening is made in the urinary system to divert urine. The flow of urine is diverted through an opening in the abdominal wall.
urinary dysfunction -Abnormal urination, patterns or bladder habits, including wetting, dribbling and other urination control problems.
urinary frequency– Urination eight or more times a day.
urinary incontinence- Involuntary loss of urine associated with a sudden strong urge to urinate.
urinary incontinence – Inability to control urination.
urostomy – An opening through the skin to the urinary tract to allow urine to drain when normal voiding is not possible.
UTI -Also referred to as urinary tract infection. An illness caused by harmful bacteria growing in the urinary tract.
UVJ – Also referred to as ureterovesical junction. Where the ureter meets the bladder.
vesicoureteral reflux – Also referred to as VUR. An abnormal condition in which urine backs up from the bladder into the ureters and occasionally into the kidneys, raising the risk of infection.